NMM/OMTORIGINAL ARTICLE

Construct validity and reliability of tests for sacroiliac dysfunction: standing flexion test (STFT) and sitting flexion test (SIFT)

Rafael P. Ribeiro, MSc; Filipe G. Guerrero, DO; Eduardo N. Camargo; Luiza R. Pivotto, MSc; Mateus A. Aimi; Jefferson F. Loss, PhD; and Cláudia T. Candotti, PhD
Notes and Affiliations
Notes and Affiliations

Received: February 23, 2021

Accepted: June 29, 2021

Published: September 22, 2021

  • Rafael P. Ribeiro, MSc, 

    Brazilian Institute of Osteopathy (IBO), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

  • Filipe G. Guerrero, DO, 

    Brazilian Institute of Osteopathy (IBO), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

  • Eduardo N. Camargo, 

    Brazilian Institute of Osteopathy (IBO), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

  • Luiza R. Pivotto, MSc, 

    School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Dance (ESEFID), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

  • Mateus A. Aimi, 

    School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Dance (ESEFID), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

  • Jefferson F. Loss, PhD, 

    School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Dance (ESEFID), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

  • Cláudia T. Candotti, PhD, 

    School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Dance (ESEFID), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Abstract

Context: Sacroiliac dysfunction is characterized by a hypomobility of the range of motion of the joint, followed by a positional change regarding the relationship between the sacrum and the iliac. In general, the clinical tests that evaluate the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) and its dysfunctions lack validity and reliability values.

Objectives: This article aims to evaluate the construct validity and intra- and inter-rater reliability of the standing flexion test (STFT) and sitting flexion test (SIFT).

Methods: In this prospective study, the sample consisted of 30 individuals of both sexes, and the evaluation team was composed of five researchers. The evaluations took place on two different days: first day, inter-rater reliability and construct validity; and second day, intra-rater reliability. The reference standard for the construct validity was 3-dimensional measurements obtained utilizing the BTS SMART-DX system. For statistical analysis, the percentage (%) agreement and the kappa statistic (K) were utilized.

Results: The construct validity was determined for STFT (70% agreement; K=0.49; p<0.01) and SIFT (56.7% agreement; K=0.29; p<0.05). The intra-rater reliability was determined for STFT (66.3% agreement; K=0.43; p<0.01) and SIFT (56.7% agreement; K=0.38; p<0.01). The inter-rater reliability was determined for STFT (10% agreement; K=−0.02; p=0.825) and SIFT (13.3% agreement; K=0.01; p=0.836).

Conclusions: The STFT confirmed the construct validity and was reliable when applied by the same rater to healthy people, even if the rater had no experience. It was not possible to achieve minimum scores using the SIFT either for construct validity or reliability. We suggest that further studies be conducted to investigate the measurement properties of palpatory clinical tests for SIJ mobility, especially in symptomatic patients.

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