Heart failure is a highly prevalent condition, particularly among elderly adults and women. In diastolic heart failure—or heart failure with normal ejection fraction—left ventricular systolic function is preserved. Although diastolic heart failure is clinically and radiographically indistinguishable from systolic heart failure, echocardiography can reveal a preserved ejection fraction with abnormal diastolic function. The present article reviews current medical concepts related to diastolic heart failure for medical practitioners, particularly primary care physicians, who play a vital role in the care of patients with heart failure. Treatment options, focusing on calcium channel blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers, are discussed. With early diagnosis and proper management, the prognosis of diastolic heart failure can be more favorable than that of systolic heart failure.